Lithium Batteries are reported in the news to erupt in flames and explode daily. FAA averages reports of Li-ion battery fires on commercial aircraft every 10 days.
Q: How do ENCAP modules throttle their charge/discharge and how is it different from a typical capacitor?
A: ENCAP Modules manage the discharge rate using our proprietary Battery Management System (BMS). The BMS is a big part of the secret sauce in the ENCAP Modules.
Q: How much degradation occurs over time/cycles?
A: Negligible over the life of the SIRIUS Module. Todd could provide personal experience example here.
Q: Is the number of cycles affected at all by the number of Supercaps in the ENCAP modules?
A: The number of capacitors in the module has no effect on the number of cycles.
Q: Are Supercaps managed so the work is spread evenly throughout each ENCAP module?
A: Yes, the BMS manages cell balancing to a very tight tolerance.
Q: What’s the cost for of hardware/software management?
A: The BMS is included in the ENCAP module along with maintenance and support as part of the 10-year unlimited warranty with an extended 25-year warranty.
Q: Is this a technology advancement in supercapacitor construction, the module/management, or both?
A: It’s both - there is IP around energy density in the capacitor as well as IP in the BMS.
Q: How do you control the discharge in a Supercap?
A: It is managed by the BMS. Based on load demand, we have produced products with charge rates from 2C-20C.
Q: What does ramping look like?
A: Really fast.
Q: What’s your efficiency after boosting to 480V or other utility scale voltages?
A: The inside voltage of the DC cells will operate from 600-1000V DC. The delivery voltage will be 480V AC. Efficiency on Supercaps is 99.1% and efficiency of Oztek and or LS Energy inverter is 98%.
Q: What are the charging/discharging times in general, best case, etc? What can affect it?
A: 3.55 kWh Supercaps are a ~2C charge/discharge which means full charge in 30 minutes, discharge can be less than a second if required. The size and capacity of the Power Control System (PCS) will affect this.
Q: How many Farads for supercap cell, module, etc?
A: 10-13 Wh per 2.4V cell.
Q: What safety features are present to protect against any arcing or unintended discharge?
A: Built-in circuit breaker, solid state relays, and thermal couples – no potential for arc-flash.
Q: What overcharge protections are in place for the cells?
A: BMS provides this protection in multiple ways along with solid state relays.
Q: Given 100% depth of discharge is there any significant changes at the start or end of a charge/discharge cycle?
A: Slightly faster discharge at the beginning and drops abruptly at end.
Q: What happens if a single Supercap in the ENCAP module fails?
A: The BMS bypasses any individually Supercap that fails.
Q: What is the loss in performance if one Supercap in a ENCAP module fails?
A: If one Supercap fails it is bypassed and the system delivers 2.4V less voltage. It would take a lot of losses to affect the PCS.
Q: How do you isolate any problematic cells in a ENCAP module?
A: Any problematic cells are detected by the BMS and are bypassed.
Q: Are there any recent implementations of ENCAP modules to point to such as pilot programs or service programs?
A: Yes hundred of installations world-wide with many in the US.
Q: What are the temperature ranges for a utility scale offering of ENCAP modules?
A: SIRIUS module operating range with zero degradation is -22F to 172F. Other electronics involved in a utility scale solution may have different temperature ranges.
Q: What are the energy storage capacities offered for a 100 kWh level system with 4 hours of storage?
A: We recommend a 40 foot sea container of ENCAP modules with Oztek inverters that provide 1.4ish MWhs.